Photo courtesy FBI
On TV shows like "CSI," viewers get to watch as investigators find and collect evidence at the scene of a crime, making blood appear as if by magic and swabbing every mouth in the vicinity. Many of us believe we have a pretty good grip on the process, and rumor has it criminals are getting a jump on the good guys using tips they pick up from these shows about forensics.
But does Hollywood get it right? Do crime scene investigators follow their DNA samples into the lab? Do they interview suspects and catch the bad guys, or is their job all about collecting physical evidence? In this article, we'll examine what really goes on when a CSI "processes a crime scene" and get a real-world view of crime scene investigation from a primary scene responder with the Colorado Bureau of Investigation.
Crime scene investigation is the meeting point of science, logic and law. "Processing a crime scene" is a long, tedious process that involves purposeful documentation of the conditions at the scene and the collection of any physical evidence that could possibly illuminate what happened and point to who did it. There is no typical crime scene, there is no typical body of evidence and there is no typical investigative approach.
At any given crime scene, a CSI might collect dried blood from a windowpane -- without letting his arm brush the glass in case there are any latent fingerprints there, lift hair off a victim's jacket using tweezers so he doesn't disturb the fabric enough to shake off any of the white powder (which may or may not be cocaine) in the folds of the sleeve, and use a sledge hammer to break through a wall that seems to be the point of origin for a terrible smell.
Who's at the Scene?
Police officers are typically the first to arrive at a crime scene. They arrest the perpetrator is he's still there and call for an ambulance if necessary. They are responsible for securing the scene so no evidence is destroyed.
The CSI unit documents the crime scene in detail and collects any physical evidence.
The district attorney is often present to help determine if the investigators require any search warrants to proceed and obtain those warrants from a judge.
The medical examiner (if a homicide) may or may not be present to determine a preliminary cause of death.
Specialists (entomologists, forensic scientists, forensic psychologists) may be called in if the evidence requires expert analysis.Detectives interview witnesses and consult with the CSI unit. They investigate the crime by following leads provided by witnesses and physical evidence.
All the while, the physical evidence itself is only part of the equation. The ultimate goal is the conviction of the perpetrator of the crime. So while the CSI scrapes off the dried blood without smearing any prints, lifts several hairs without disturbing any trace evidence and smashes through a wall in the living room, he's considering all of the necessary steps to preserve the evidence in its current form, what the lab can do with this evidence in order to reconstruct the crime or identify the criminal, and the legal issues involved in making sure this evidence is admissible in court.
The investigation of a crime scene begins when the CSI unit receives a call from the police officers or detectives on the scene. The overall system works something like this:
- The CSI arrives on the scene and makes sure it is secure. She does an initial walk-through to get an overall feel for the crime scene, finds out if anyone moved anything before she arrived, and generates initial theories based on visual examination. She makes note of potential evidence. At this point, she touches nothing.
- The CSI thoroughly documents the scene by taking photographs and drawing sketches during a second walk-through. Sometimes, the documentation stage includes a video walk-through, as well. She documents the scene as a whole and documents anything she has identified as evidence. She still touches nothing.
- Now it's time to touch stuff -- very, very carefully. The CSI systematically makes her way through the scene collecting all potential evidence, tagging it, logging it and packaging it so it remains intact on its way to the lab. Depending on the task breakdown of the CSI unit she works for and her areas of expertise, she may or may not analyze the evidence in the lab.
- The crime lab processes all of the evidence the CSI collected at the crime scene. When the lab results are in, they go to the lead detective on the case.
Every CSI unit handles the division between field work and lab work differently. What goes on at the crime scene is called crime scene investigation (or crime scene analysis), and what goes on in the laboratory is called forensic science. Not all CSIs are forensic scientists. Some CSIs only work in the field -- they collect the evidence and then pass it to the forensics lab. In this case, the CSI must still possess a good understanding of forensic science in order to recognize the specific value of various types of evidence in the field. But in many cases, these jobs overlap.
Joe Clayton is a primary crime scene responder at the Colorado Bureau of Investigation (CBI). He has 14 years of field experience and also is an expert in certain areas of forensic science. As Clayton explains, his role in laboratory analysis varies according to the type of evidence he brings back from the crime scene:
Depending on what scientific examinations are needed or requested, I may be involved in the actual "bench work" once the evidence is submitted to the laboratory. I have expertise in blood pattern identification (blood spatter), trajectory determination, serology (blood and body fluids), and photography. I also have knowledge in many other areas (firearms, fingerprints, questioned documents...) that may assist me at the scene. As a primary crime scene responder at the CBI, my role at the scene may involve one or more of my particular disciplines. While I would not do a functionality test on a firearm here at the laboratory, my role at the crime scene would be to collect the gun and understand its potential evidentiary significance.
Crime scene investigation is a massive undertaking. Let's start at the beginning: scene recognition.